Data Analysis and Tools Week 1

Having successfully completed the Data Management and Visualization I have commenced the Data Analysis and Tools course.  I will continue my investigation into the relationship between democracy and economic well-being.

This week we focused on preforming a Tukey’s HSD (honest significant difference) test on the relationship that was explored in my previous work.  I have put together a Jypter Notebook outlining the steps I took as well as a python script.

Project Description

In this analysis I examine the relationship between the economic well-being of a society and the level of openness.   My hypothesis is that countries with a more open society will have a higher level of economic well-being.

The data for this analysis comes from a subset of the GapMider project data.  I use the level of democratization as a measure of the openness of a country.  In order to measure the economic well-being I will be using GDP per capita data.  There were previous data management decisions that were made and interested readers can read all posts related to this project to understand what they were.

Data Management and Visualization Summary

My previous work established that, at first blush, the data support the hypothesis that countries that are more open and democratic have a higher standard of living or economic well-being than those that are closed.


As a summary I would like to present the average economic well-being by the level of openness.

Openness Count Mean
1 – Full Democracy 32 $19,290
2 – Democracy 57 $3,425
3 – Open Anocracy 19 $1,167
4 – Closed Anocracy 27 $2,473
5 – Autocracy 20 $6,114

Tukey HSD Test

I preformed a Tukey HSD test to see if there was a statistically significant difference between the means.  Here are the results of the test:

                Multiple Comparison of Means - Tukey HSD,FWER=0.05                
       group1              group2         meandiff     lower       upper    reject
 1 - Full Democracy    2 - Democracy    -15865.7902 -20292.5999 -11438.9805  True 
 1 - Full Democracy  3 - Open Anocracy  -18123.2743 -23927.4635  -12319.085  True 
 1 - Full Democracy 4 - Closed Anocracy -16817.8275 -22054.7651 -11580.8899  True 
 1 - Full Democracy    5 - Autocracy    -13176.4936 -18888.9112  -7464.076   True 
   2 - Democracy     3 - Open Anocracy   -2257.4841  -7566.3387  3051.3706  False 
   2 - Democracy    4 - Closed Anocracy  -952.0373   -5634.007   3729.9324  False 
   2 - Democracy       5 - Autocracy     2689.2966   -2519.0659  7897.6591  False 
 3 - Open Anocracy  4 - Closed Anocracy  1305.4468   -4695.6206  7306.5141  False 
 3 - Open Anocracy     5 - Autocracy     4946.7807   -1473.4225  11366.9838 False 
4 - Closed Anocracy    5 - Autocracy     3641.3339   -2271.0185  9553.6864  False 


The mean income per person for the countries that are the most open are different from the means of all other groups. I would hasten to note that the difference between countries identified as full democracies are significantly different than the closed autocracy.


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